The Causes of Epilepsy: Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children

The Causes of Epilepsy: Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children

Edited by: Simon D. Shorvon, Frederick Andermann, Renzo Guerrini 

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

ISBN 978-1-4051-8383-3 

pp 790 

Causation is an aspect of epilepsy neglected in the scientific literature and in the conceptualization of epilepsy at a clinical and experimental level. It was to remedy this deficiency that this book was conceived. The book opens with a draft etiological classification that goes some way to filling the nosological void. The book is divided into three etiological categories: idiopathic, symptomatic, and provoked epilepsies. Each chapter considers topics in a consistent fashion, dealing with the phenomenon of epilepsy in each etiology, including its epidemiology, clinical features and prognosis, and any specific aspects of treatment. The book is a comprehensive reference work, a catalogue of all important causes of epilepsy, and a clinical tool for all clinicians dealing with patients who have epilepsy. It is aimed at epileptologists and neurologists and provides a distillation of knowledge in a form that is helpful in the clinical setting.

The authorship is drawn from leading international authorities in the field providing an authoritative resource. It provides extensive coverage of the causes of epilepsy in all age groups, both common and rare, in over 100 chapters, and extensive illustrations and tables.



Jerome Engel

Sir John Bell

Simon Shorvon

Section 1 – Introdution
1. Historical introduction
Simon Shorvon

2. The etiological classification of epilepsy
Simon Shorvon

3. Epileptogenesis in idiopathic epilepsy
Snezana Maljevic , Holger Lerche

4. Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in symptomatic epilepsy
Mark Cook

Section 2 – Idiopathic Epilepsy
5. Introduction to the concept of genetic epilepsy
Renzo Guerrini , Simon Shorvon, Frederick Andermann, Eva Andermann

Subsection 2.1 – Pure epilepsies due to single-gene disorders
6. The genetic contribution to epilepsy: the known and missing heritability
Michael Johnson

7. Benign Familial Neonatal seizures
Perrine Plouin

8. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy
Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli

9. Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus
Ingrid Scheffer, Yue-Hua Zhang

10. Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy or Dravet Syndrome
Carla Marini , Renzo Guerrini
11. Benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy
Teiichi Onuma
Subsection 2-2 – Pure epilepsies with presumed complex inheritance
12. Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy
Carlo Marini, Renzo Guerrini

13. Benign Partial Epilepsies of Childhood
Roberto Caraballo, Natalio Fejerman

Section 3 – Symptomatic Epilepsy
14. Introduction to the concept of symptomatic epilepsy
Simon Shorvon

Subsection 3.1 – Epilepsy Syndromes
15. West Syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
Renzo Guerrini, Carla Marini

Subsection 3.2 – Progressive myoclonic epilepsies
16. Unverricht-Lundborg disease
Maria Lehtinen, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Reetta Kalviainen

17. Dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA)
Teiichi Onuma

18. Lafora body disease
Anna Jansen

19. Epilepsy in mitochondrial cytopathies
Laurence Bindoff, Bernt Engelsen

20. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
Ruth Williams

21. Sialidosis and Gaucher disease
Silvana Franceschetti, Laura Canafoglia

22. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
Eva Andermann

23. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies: other rarer causes
Frederick Andermann, Eva Andermann

Subsection 3.3 – Neurocutaneous syndromes
24. Tuberous Sclerosis complex
Catherine Chu-Shore, Elizabeth Thiele

25. Neurofibromatosis
Rosalie Ferner and Margaret Jackson

26. Sturge-Weber Syndrome
Alexis ArzimanoglouLeni Panagiotakaki

27. Other neurocutaneous syndromes
Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo

Subsection 3.4 – Other single-gene disorders with epilepsy as a prominent symptom
28. Angelman syndrome
Bernard Dan, Stewart Boyd

29. Lysosomal disorders and Menkes syndrome
Edwin Kolodny, Swati Sathe

30. Neuroacanthocytosis
Anna Jansen

31. Organic acid, amino acids and peroxisomal disorders.
Maria Alice Donati, Serena Gasperini, Renzo Guerrini

32. Porphyria
Geoffrey Dean, Simon Shorvon

33. Pyridoxine-dependant epilepsy.
Sidney Gospe

34. Rett Syndrome and MECP2 and CDKL5 genotypes
Daniel Glaze

35. Urea cycle disorders
Linda Huh, Kevin Farrell

36. Wilson disease
JM Walshe

37. Disorders of cobalanin and folate metabolism
Michael Shevell, David Watkins, David Rosenblatt

38. Other single gene disorders
Vincent Navarro, Frédéric Sedel

Subsection 3.5 – Disorders of chromosome structure
39. Down syndrome.
Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Monika Eisermann, Olivier Dulac

40. Fragile X syndrome.
Irissa Devine, Carl Stafstrom

41. 4p (Wolf-Hirschhorn) syndrome
Agatino Battaglia

42. Inverted duplicated chromosome 15 (isodicentric chromosome 15)
Agatino Battaglia

43. Ring chromosome 20
Geneviève Bernard, Frederick Andermann

Subsection 3.6 – Developmental anomalies of cerebral structure (cortical dysplasia)
44. Hemimegalencephaly
M Scott Perry, Michael Duchowny

45. Focal cortical dysplasia and related variants
Ruben Kuzniecky

46. Agyria- pachygyria band spectrum
Elena Parrini, Renzo Guerrini

47. Agenesis of the corpus callosum
Dorothy Jones-Davis, Yolanda Lau, Elliott Sherr / Jones Davies

48. Polymicrogyria and schizencephaly
Renzo Guerrini, Carman Barba

49. Periventricular nodular heterotopia
Rahul Tathakrishnan, Yahya Aghakhani, François Dubeau

50. Microcephaly
Elizabeth Ross

51. Arachnoid cysts
Concezio Di Rocco, Gianpiero Tamburrini

52. Malformations of human cerebral cortex
Waney Squier

Subsection 3.7 – Hippocampal sclerosis and prenatal and perinatal injury
53. Hippocampal sclerosis
Fernando Cendes, Márcia Morita

54. Neonatal and postneonatal epilepsy – causes
Lei Mizrahi, Kevin Chapman

55. Cerebral palsy
Sameer Zuberi, Andreas Brunklaus

56. Vaccination and immunization
Simon Shorvon

Subsection 3.8 – Cerebral trauma
57. Open head injury
Flavio Giordano, Barbara Spacca, Lorenzo Genitori

58. Closed head injury
Manuel Muria-Fernandez, Jorge Borneo, Robert Teasell

59. De novo epilepsy after neurosurgery
Charles Polkey

60. Epilepsy after epilepsy surgery
Andre Palmini

61. Non-accidental braininjury
Renzo Guerrini, Alessio De Ciantis

Subsection 3.9 – Cerebral tumor
62. Glioma
William Gray, Henry Bulstrode

63. Ganglioglioma, Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial tumour and related tumours
Thomas Jacques, William Harkness

64. Hypothalamic hamartoma and gelastic epilepsy
John Kerrigan

65. Meningiomas
Sumeet Vadera, William Bingaman

66. Metastatic disease
Rolando Del Maestro, Abdulrahman Sabbagh, Ahmed Lary, Marie-Christine Guilot

Subsection 3.10 – Cerebral infection
67. Viral encephalitis
Jane Adcock

68. Bacterial meningitis and focal suppurative intracranial infections in children
Suresh Pujar, Richard Chin

69. Bacterial meningitis and pyogenic abscess in adults
Lina Nashef, Fahmida Chowdhury

70. Malaria
Charles Newton

71. Neurocysticercosis
Hector Garcia

72. Other Parasitic diseases
Manish Modi, Gagandeep and Singh

73. Tuberculosis
Nadir Bharucha, Roberta Raven, Vivek Nambiar

74. HIV infection
P Satischandra, S Sinha

75. Emerging and less common central nervous system viral encephalitides
HT Chong, CTTan

Subsection 3.11 – Cerebrovascular disease
76. Cerebral haemorrhage
Henry Dinsdale

77. Cerebral infarction and occult degenerative cerebrovascular disease
Ruth Namire, R Eugene Ramsey

78. Arteriovenous malformations
SA Tharin, Autumn Klein, Robert Friedlander

79. Cavernous maalformations
Adrian Siegel

80. Other vascular disorders
Leif Gjerstad, Erik Taubøll

Subsection 3.12 – Cerebal immunological disorders
81. Rasmussen encephalitis and related conditions
Antonio Gambardella, Frederick Andermann

82. Systemic lupus erythematosus and other collagen vascular diseases
Rolando Cimaz, Andrea Taddio

83. Inflammatory and immunological diseases of the central nervous system
Michael Lunn

Subsection 3.13 – Other cerebral disorders
84. Psychiatric disorders
Brent Elliott, John O’Donavan

85. Mutiple sclerosis and other acquired demyelinating diseases
Mark Manford

86. Hydrocephalus, porencephaly
Pierangelo Veggiotti, Frederica Teutonico

87. Alzheimer disease and other adult degenerative disorders
Sigmund Jenssen, Kandan Kulanfaivel

Section 4 – Provoked Epilepsies
88. Introduction to the concept of provoked epilepsy
Simon Shorvon, Renzo Guerrini, Frederick Andermann

Subsection 4.1 Precipitating factors
89. Fever
Thomas Bleck

90. The menstrual cycle and catamenial epilepsy
Andrew Herzog

91. Sleep
Liborio Parrino, Giulia Milioli, Fernado De Paolis, Andrea Grassi, Gioia Gioi, Mario Giovanni Terzano

92. Metabolic and endocrine-induced seizures
Bernhard Steinhoff

93. Electrolyte or sugar disturbances
Bindu Menon, Simon Shorvon

94. Drug-induced seizures
Aidan Neligan

95. Alcohol and toxin-induced seizures
Michelle Shapiro, Andrew Cole

Subsection 4.2 – Reflex seizures
96. How reflex mechanisms cause epilepsy
Benjamin Zifkin, Frederick Andermann

97. Visual stimuli, photosensitivity and photosensitive epilepsy
Dorothée KAsteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Laura Cantonetti, Pasquale Parisi

98. Startle-induced (and other sensory induced) epilepsy
Jean-Pierre Vignal , Andrine Aubert, Patrick Chauvel

99. Primary reading epilepsy
Matthias Koepp

100. Auditory-induced epilepsy
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Frederick Andermann

101. Focal reflex seizures – with emphasis on epilepsy triggered by eating
Benjamin Zifkin, Guy Rémillard, Frederick Andermann

102. Hot water epilepsy
P Satischandra, S Sinha, Anuranjan Anand

103. Reflex epilepsy with higher-level processing
Benjamin Zifkin, Frederick Andermann

Section 5 – Status Epilepticus
104. Introduction – how status epilepticus is caused
Karthik Rajasekaran, Howard Goodkin

105. Causes of status epilepticus in children
Rodd Scott

106. The causes of convulsive status epilepticus in adults
Elizabeth Waterhouse, Peter Kaplan

107. Uncommon causes of status epilepticus
Simon Shorvon, Raymond Tan, Aidan Neilgan

108. Causes of non-convulsive status epilepticus in adults
Pierre Thomas

109. Causes of epilepsia partialis continua
Hirokazu Oguni and Frederick Andermann

100. Afterword
Simon Shorvon, Renzo Guerrini, Frederick Andermann

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